Scienceonline - Last News

Single brain scan can diagnose Alzheimer’s disease

Single brain scan can diagnose Alzheimer’s disease

23 Giugno 2022

A single MRI scan of the brain could be enough...

Researchers create ‘time machine’ simulations studying the lifecycle of ancestor galaxy cities

Researchers create ‘time machine’ simulations studying the lifecycle of ancestor galaxy cities

06 Giugno 2022

For the first time, researchers have created simulations that directly...

Unlocking the secrets of killer whale diets and their role in climate change

Unlocking the secrets of killer whale diets and their role in climate change

20 Maggio 2022

Killer whale populations are invading the Arctic, causing significant disruptions...

New mechanism for regulating supply of DNA building blocks may lead to better antibiotics

New mechanism for regulating supply of DNA building blocks may lead to better antibiotics

19 Maggio 2022

In a new study published in Nature Communications, researchers from...

New study reveals impact of sea level rise on human groups during Mesolithic and Neolithic periods

New study reveals impact of sea level rise on human groups during Mesolithic and Neolithic periods

19 Maggio 2022

A study carried out in the area around the Pego-Oliva...

Snake-like limb loss in a Carboniferous amniote

11 Aprile 2022

Among living tetrapods, many lineages have converged on a snake-like...

Protein boosts height growth in girls

Protein boosts height growth in girls

07 Aprile 2022

Protein boosts height growth in girls. Just seven grams over...

Fungicide combo against devastating red clover disease

Fungicide combo against devastating red clover disease

07 Marzo 2022

Red clover, an important forage crop for grazing cattle, can...

Covid-19: Three exposures to spike protein allow people to develop broad antibody immunity – also against Omicron

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich 04 Feb 2022
427 volte

 

Scientists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, Helmholtz Munich, and Technical University of Munich have shown that the immune system is capable of neutralizing even Omicron after a total of three exposures to the viral spike protein.

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has continued to evolve, with new variants of concern (VoCs) spreading rapidly. Highly contagious and partially capable of evading the immune response, Omicron has become the dominant variant in most countries.

Answers to the question how the immune systems can be “educated” to battle Omicron and other immune escape variants of the virus are provided by a team led by Professor Ulrike Protzer (Institute of Virology at Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Munich), Professor Percy Knolle (University Hospital rechts der Isar of the Technical University of Munich), and Professor Oliver T. Keppler (Max von Pettenkofer Institute and Gene Center Munich at LMU). As they report in Nature Medicine, a total of three exposures to the viral spike protein leads to production of virus neutralizing antibodies not only in high quantity, but also high quality. These high-quality antibodies bind to the viral spike protein more vigorously and are also capable of effectively fighting the Omicron variant. This applies to triple-vaccinated people, to people who have recovered from Covid-19 and then had two vaccinations, and to double-vaccinated people who then had a breakthrough infection.

Longitudinal study with 171 participants

Since the beginning of the pandemic, voluntary participants from the staff at the University Hospital rechts der Isar at risk of infection participated in the study and were regularly tested. The researchers identified individuals who had contracted SARS-CoV-2 during the first wave of the pandemic in spring 2020, and compared them to a second group of people who had not been infected. Subsequently, both groups were offered vaccination with the mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccine from BioNTech/Pfizer and were monitored for almost two years. The cohort comprised 98 recovered persons and 73 persons without prior infection.

“This longitudinal study is particularly exciting, because we can follow how the immune response evolves over time against the virus and after vaccination” says Professor Knolle, pointing to a study by the team, which has just appeared in Nature Communications. In the new study the team now defined several parameters in the blood of study participants: the concentration of antibodies to the viral spike protein, the binding strength of these antibodies, and their ability to neutralize infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in cell culture. For estimating the extent of protective immunity, the latter two parameters are particularly important. The study revealed that the ability of the immune system to neutralize the virus correlates only weakly with the antibody titer. Rather, it was critical how effectively these antibodies bind to the virus and thus disable infection.

As predicted from its many mutations, Omicron exhibited the most pronounced evasion from neutralizing antibodies compared to all other viral variants tested. “For Omicron, you need considerably more and better antibodies to prevent infection” points out Professor Keppler. The researchers developed a new virus neutralization test, which allowed them to analyze antibodies in many serum samples and different variants of the virus at high throughput rates. Professor Protzer adds: “A new finding of our study is that people require three separate exposures to the spike protein to build up high-level neutralizing activity against all viral variants, including Omicron.”

As the scientists report, various constellations are possible for these three spike encounters. Triple-vaccinated people without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection had almost the same titer and quality of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron as vaccinated convalescents or people who had a breakthrough infection with Delta or Omicron. Professor Keppler: “In all cases, the neutralization activity reached similarly high levels and this was paralleled by an increased binding strength of the antibodies.” Professor Protzer and Professor Knolle agree: “The immunity built up or strengthened by means of vaccination is key to effective protection against future variants of the virus. A recent breakthrough infection – as irritating and undesirable as it is – has in fact the same effect as an additional vaccination on this important arm of the immune system.”

Vota questo articolo
(0 Voti)

Lascia un commento

Assicurati di aver digitato tutte le informazioni richieste, evidenziate da un asterisco (*). Non è consentito codice HTML.

 

Scienzaonline con sottotitolo Sciencenew  - Periodico
Autorizzazioni del Tribunale di Roma – diffusioni:
telematica quotidiana 229/2006 del 08/06/2006
mensile per mezzo stampa 293/2003 del 07/07/2003
Scienceonline, Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Roma 228/2006 del 29/05/06
Pubblicato a Roma – Via A. De Viti de Marco, 50 – Direttore Responsabile Guido Donati

Photo Gallery