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Covid-19 vaccination: thrombosis can be prevented by prompt treatment

Covid-19 vaccination: thrombosis can be prevented by prompt treatment

17 Maggio 2021

A rare syndrome has been observed in people following vaccination...

Bispecific IgG neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants and prevents escape in mice

Bispecific IgG neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants and prevents escape in mice

29 Aprile 2021

AbstractNeutralizing antibodies that target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the...

The mystery of a Picasso unveiled by scientists

The mystery of a Picasso unveiled by scientists

21 Aprile 2021

Pablo PicassoSeated ManBarcelona, June-November 1917Oil on canvas104 x 54 cmMuseu...

Water purification system engineered from wood, with help from a microwave oven

Water purification system engineered from wood, with help from a microwave oven

16 Aprile 2021

Before and after. On the left is an aqueous solution...

The Indonesian Lusi eruption – a significant source of greenhouse gases

The Indonesian Lusi eruption – a significant source of greenhouse gases

12 Aprile 2021

The main Lusi vent and its plume during regular geysering...

Exercise promotes healthy living and a healthy liver

Exercise promotes healthy living and a healthy liver

12 Aprile 2021

Researchers at the University of Tsukuba show that in non-alcoholic...

Aluminum Is Intricately Associated with the Neuropathology of Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

Aluminum Is Intricately Associated with the Neuropathology of Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

12 Aprile 2021

The image shows aluminum (orange) in a neuron in a...

Bacteria help plants grow better

Bacteria help plants grow better

09 Aprile 2021

Study by the University of Bonn may in the long...

Settembre 2020
Venerdì, 25 Settembre 2020 13:37

Il valore del tempo. Mito, fisica e ambiente

 

In uscita in data odierna il terzo libro di divulgazione scientifica di Walter Grassi. 

Pubblicato in Eventi


The white, fluffy layer that covers Camembert is made of a mould resulting from human selection, similar to the way dogs were domesticated from wolves. A collaboration involving French scientists from the CNRS1 has shown, through genomic analyses and laboratory experiments, that the mould Penicillium camemberti is the result of a domestication process that took place in several stages. According to their work, a first domestication event resulted in the blue–green mould P. biforme, which is used, for example, for making fresh goat's cheese. A second, more recent domestication event resulted in the white and fluffy P. camemberti.

Both domesticated species show advantageous characteristics for maturing cheese compared to the wild, closely related species: they are whiter and grow faster in cheese-ripening cellar conditions. In addition, they do not produce, or only in very small quantities, a toxin that is potentially dangerous to humans; they also prevent the proliferation of undesirable moulds. This research, published on 24th September in Current Biology, may have an impact on cheese production, by steering the selection of moulds according to the desired characteristics.

1- The study involved scientists from the Ecology, Systematics and Evolution laboratory (CNRS/Université Paris-Saclay/AgroParisTech) and the Biodiversity and Microbial Ecology laboratory (Université de Brest, Plouzané).


https://www.cnrs.fr/en/penicillium-camemberti-history-domestication-cheese

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

Human skulls found in Cueva de la Dehesilla


Experts from the Department of Prehistory and Archaeology of the University of Seville have just published a study in the prestigious journal Plos One on an important archaeological find in the Cueva de la Dehesilla (Cádiz). Specifically, two human skulls and a juvenile goat were discovered along with various archaeological structures and materials from a funerary ritual from the Middle Neolithic period (4800-4000 BC) hitherto unknown in the Iberian Peninsula.

"This finding opens new lines of research and anthropological scenarios, where human and animal sacrifice may have been related to ancestral cults, propitiatory rituals and divine prayers in commemorative festivities," explains US researcher Daniel García Rivero.

The archaeological site located in the Cueva de la Dehesilla consists of two adult human skulls, one male one female, the former being older. The female skull shows a depression in the frontal bone, which probably comes from an incomplete trepanation, as well as cuts in the occipital bone produced by decapitation. In addition, a wall was found separating the human skulls and the skeleton of the goat, on the one hand, from a stone altar with a stele and a hearth, on the other. Finally, several uniquely decorated ceramic vessels, some lithic objects and charred plant remains were discovered in the so-called Locus 2.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline
Venerdì, 25 Settembre 2020 09:43

Al Museo delle Mura “Narrazioni d’argilla”

Dal 18 settembre al 15 novembre 2020 le Mura Aureliane ospitano l’arte ceramica di diciotto artiste, ricca di significati simbolici e spirituali

Le torri delle Mura Aureliane, la sapiente arte ceramica di un gruppo di artiste e il fantastico mondo simbolico delle fiabe: sono questi gli elementi che compongono la mostra “NARRAZIONI D’ARGILLA. Gli Archetipi nelle fiabe e nei miti” ospitata al Museo delle Mura dal 18 settembre al 15 novembre 2020. L’esposizione, a ingresso gratuito e promossa da Roma Capitale, Assessorato alla Crescita culturale – Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali, è ideata dall’associazione culturale Officina creativa le Lase ed è curata da Manuela Troilo. La mostra fa parte di ROMARAMA, il programma culturale di Roma Capitale. Servizi museali di Zètema Progetto Cultura.


“Narrazioni d’argilla” è una rassegna d’arte ceramica in cui l’argilla è lavorata in tutte le declinazioni possibili, con particolare attenzione alle sperimentazioni e contaminazioni dell’avanguardia artistica contemporanea. Unite dall’amore per un mezzo espressivo così versatile, diciotto artiste provenienti da percorsi molto diversi si sono unite in questo progetto espositivo per raccontare le loro emozioni intessute di ricordi di infanzia e rappresentare gli archetipi femminili che si incontrano nelle favole, nei miti, e nei racconti epici. Attraverso un insieme di oltre 70 opere di dimensioni differenti – alcune quasi miniature, altre alte 2 metri – propongono spunti di riflessione e insieme di giocosa fantasia espressiva, spaziando dalle citazioni di Basile a quelle di Calvino, secondo cui la fiaba è una spiegazione generale della vita; il catalogo dei destini che possono darsi a un uomo e a una donna, soprattutto per la parte di vita che è il farsi un destino: la giovinezza, che poi vede la sua conferma nella maturità e nella vecchiaia.

Pubblicato in Arte

Anticorpi neutralizzanti contro l’IFN di tipo I sono alla base della polmonite da COVID-19.

Abbiamo verificato l'ipotesi che gli auto-anticorpi contro gli IFN di tipo I possano essere alla base delle forme severe di Covid-19 compromettendo il legame degli IFN di tipo I al loro recettore e l'attivazione della risposta cellulare contro il virus. Gli auto-anticorpi neutralizzanti sono rappresentati in rosso e gli IFN di tipo I in blu. Nei pazienti con autoanticorpi, l'autoimmunità adattativa altera l'immunità antivirale innata e intrinseca.

 

Alti livelli di anticorpi diretti contro IFN di tipo I nel sangue di individui con forme severe. Tra questi anche pazienti con una malattia genetica rara, l’Incontinentia Pigmenti. Lo afferma, in due studi pubblicati sulla rivista Science, un team internazionale che comprende due ricercatrici dell’Istituto di genetica e biofisica del Cnr di Napoli

Perché la risposta individuale all'infezione da virus SARS-CoV2 varia così tanto da persona a persona? Risolvere questo mistero renderebbe possibile identificare i pazienti a rischio, anticipare e migliorare la loro cura e offrire nuove vie terapeutiche basate su una maggiore comprensione della malattia.


Due studi condotti da un team internazionale a cui hanno partecipato Francesca Fusco e Matilde Valeria Ursini dell’istituto di genetica e biofisica “A. Buzzati-Traverso” del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche di Napoli (Cnr-Igb) e pubblicati sulla rivista Science danno risposta a questa domanda chiave. Il team - guidato da Jean-Laurent Casanova (The Rockefeller University, NY, USA e Istitute Imagine/Necker-Enfants malades, Parigi, Francia) e Helen Su (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, USA) - ha identificato le cause genetiche e immunologiche che spiegano il 15% delle forme gravi di Covid-19. I pazienti hanno in comune un difetto nell'attività delle forme di Interferone di tipo I (INF-1), molecole del sistema immunitario che normalmente svolgono una potente attività antivirale. Queste scoperte potrebbero consentire di sottoporre a screening le persone a rischio di sviluppare una forma grave e di trattare in maniera mirata i pazienti.

Pubblicato in Medicina




As the antimalarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have drawn attention as potential therapies for COVID-19 and are being widely used off-label, it’s now more important than ever to have a thorough assessment of the safety of these medications. A recent analysis published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology provides new insights.

In the analysis of real-world data from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System, a global database of post-marketing safety reports, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine were associated with higher rates of various cardiovascular problems, including life-threatening heart rhythm events, heart failure, and damage to the heart muscle itself (termed cardiomyopathy).

“Moreover, we show how these adverse events carry high risks for severe outcomes including death, even with standard doses of the drugs,” said senior author Elad Maor, MD, PhD, of Sheba Medical Center and Tel-Aviv University, in Israel. “The take-home message of our work is that physicians around the world should be careful when prescribing these drugs for off-label indications, especially for patients with cardiac disorders.”

 

Link to Study: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bcp.14546

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

Genome duplications describe an exceptional process in land plants to make available additional genetic variability. Photo: Marcus Koch/Heidelberg University

 

 

Researchers study relationship of morphological variation and biological diversity in plants

Genome duplications play a major role in the development of forms and structures of plant organisms and their changes across long periods of evolution. Heidelberg University biologists under the direction of Prof. Dr Marcus Koch made this discovery in their research of the Brassicaceae family. To determine the scope of the different variations over 30 million years, they analysed all 4,000 species of this plant family and investigated at the genus level their morphological diversity with respect to all their characteristic traits. The results of this research were published in the journal “Nature Communications”.
The external form of a plant, also known as its morphology, notably depends on environmental factors and their influences. This is true over short time scales of individual development as well as over the long term on an evolutionary scale.

“A plant species always embodies only a portion of the possible breadth of morphological variation in evolution, thus allowing related evolutionary lines to be studied as a group for their morphological disparity,” stresses Prof. Koch, who leads the Biodiversity and Plant Systematics research group at the Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) of Heidelberg University. The extent of this disparity can be viewed as evolutionary potential for adaptations to altered environments and an associated differentiation.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline
Venerdì, 25 Settembre 2020 08:54

Halt post-disturbance Logging in Forests

 

Burned eucalypt forest in Australia. Avoiding overall post-disturbance logging after such major disturbances can help to maintain biodiversity. (Photo: Simon Thorn)

 


Storms, fires, bark beetles: Many forests around the world are increasingly affected by these and other natural disturbances. It is common practice to eliminate the consequences of these disturbances – in other words, to harvest damaged trees as quickly as possible. Spruce trees attacked by bark beetles are removed from the forest, as are dryed beeches or trees thrown to the ground by storms.

"However, this practice is an additional disturbance that has a negative impact on biodiversity," says Dr. Simon Thorn, forest ecologist from Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany. During such logging operations, soil is damaged, most dead wood is removed and structures such as folded up root plates are lost. "That is why a certain proportion of such disturbed forests should be excluded from overall logging operations," Thorn says.

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

Common noctule bat | Photo: Anton Vlaschenko



Many animal species are currently changing their distribution range owing to global warming. The underlying mechanisms are still little known, especially in mammals. An international team of scientists led by the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) has now demonstrated that in the common noctule bat, one of the largest European bat species, the colonization of hibernacula progresses from lower to higher latitudes over successive generations of young animals – especially first-year males. Because of their relatively high reproduction rate and the long-distance dispersal of male juveniles, it is probably relatively easy for common noctules to adjust to global warming. For species with lower reproduction rates and a limited migratory potential of the young – the majority of European bat species – the future might not look as favourable when facing continuing global warming. The paper was published in the scientific journal "Biology Letters".

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

 

 


Le emissioni di gas serra degli allevamenti intensivi rappresentano il 17 per cento delle emissioni totali dell’Ue, più di quelle di tutte le automobili e i furgoni in circolazione messi insieme. Senza una decisa riduzione del numero di animali allevati l’Ue non sarà in grado di raggiungere gli obiettivi definiti dell’Accordo di Parigi sul clima.

Lo rivela una nuova analisi di Greenpeace, secondo la quale le emissioni annuali degli allevamenti sono aumentate del 6 per cento tra il 2007 e il 2018. Tale aumento, l’equivalente di 39 milioni di tonnellate di CO2, equivale ad aggiungere 8,4 milioni di auto sulle strade europee.

“I numeri parlano chiaro: non possiamo evitare le conseguenze peggiori della crisi climatica se a livello politico si continua a difendere a spada tratta la produzione intensiva di carne e latticini.” dichiara Federica Ferrario, responsabile campagna agricoltura di Greenpeace Italia. “L’Ue sta elaborando una nuova legge sul clima, aggiornando i suoi obiettivi climatici e definendo la PAC per i prossimi sette anni. La nostra analisi mostra chiaramente che un’azione credibile per il clima deve includere la fine delle sovvenzioni pubbliche per l’allevamento intensivo nella PAC e utilizzare piuttosto il denaro pubblico per sostenere la riduzione del numero di animali allevati e aiutare gli agricoltori a una vera e propria transizione”.

Pubblicato in Ambiente

 

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