The five-year relative survival was 64 percent for cervical carcinomas, 53 percent for vaginal, 66 percent for vulvar, 47 percent for penile, 66 percent for anal, 56 percent for rectal, and 51 percent for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Five-year relative survival was consistently higher among white individuals than black individuals for all HPV-associated cancers and all age groups, and the largest differences were for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas among those younger than 60 years and for penile squamous cell carcinomas among those aged 40-49 years compared with other age groups. Also, older people with HPV-associated cancers tended to die sooner after diagnosis than younger people, and men with an HPV-associated cancer of the anus were likely to die sooner than women with the same cancer. "This new study shows that race, sex, and age can make a difference in surviving HPV-associated cancers said co-author Mona Saraiya, MD, MPH. "There are things that people can do to avoid getting an HPV-related cancer, or to help improve their chances of survival such as getting the HPV vaccine when recommended at the age of 11 or 12 years old (or as early as age 9 and as late as age 26); getting screened for cervical cancer at the recommended ages; and for those who have been diagnosed with an HPV-associated cancer, working with their healthcare provider to create a personalized plan for care.. Health care providers can take steps to assure that they are offering the recommended screening and treatment, regardless of a patient's race, age or sex."