HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del in Homozygosity and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Guido Donati 28 Ott 2023

Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL), defined as the unfortunate occurrence of two or more consecutive pregnancy losses, is a distressing reproductive health issue affecting a significant number of couples worldwide. The underlying causes of RPL are diverse and complex, with genetic, immunological, hormonal, and anatomical factors contributing to the condition. Among the genetic factors, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphisms have gained attention as potential players in RPL, specifically focusing on the HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del (insertion/deletion) polymorphism. HLA-G Gene and Its Significance.

The HLA-G gene, belonging to the HLA family, plays a crucial role in immune regulation during pregnancy. It is primarily expressed by placental trophoblast cells and is essential for establishing tolerance to the semi-allogeneic fetus. HLA-G exists in various soluble or membrane-bound isoforms, contributing to immune modulation and successful placentation. It has been linked to conditions such as preeclampsia and recurrent pregnancy loss.

The HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del Polymorphism
Genetic variations in the HLA-G gene, particularly in the 3' untranslated region (UTR), are of interest for their potential impact on HLA-G mRNA stability and expression. One such polymorphism is the 14bp Ins/Del, which involves the insertion or deletion of 14 base pairs in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene's 3' UTR. This polymorphism has been studied in relation to its influence on HLA-G expression and its potential association with recurrent pregnancy loss.

Studies on HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del in Homozygosity
Research investigating the HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del polymorphism in relation to RPL has yielded mixed results. Some studies have suggested a link between homozygosity for the insertion or deletion allele and RPL risk, while others have found no significant correlation. In some studies, significantly higher plasma soluble HLA-G levels were found in individuals with homozygotes for 14 bp del and heterozygotes compared to homozygotes for 14 bp ins, indicating a possible protective effect of the deletion allele. However, other studies are not in line with this idea, suggesting a more complex relationship between the HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del polymorphism and RPL.

Potential Explanations for Varied Results
The variability in research findings regarding the HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del polymorphism and RPL may stem from several factors:
Ethnic Differences: HLA-G molecules exhibit ethnic variability, which can influence how the polymorphism interacts with the immune system and its impact on RPL.
Diverse Population Frequencies: The frequency of HLA-G 14bp polymorphisms differs among populations, and this variation can affect the prevalence and impact of the polymorphism on RPL risk.
Complex HLA System: The human leukocyte antigen system is intricate and interconnected. Genetic interactions between different HLA genes and their variants can complicate the relationship between HLA-G polymorphisms and RPL.

Research Variances: Different research centers may employ varying screening methods and criteria, which can contribute to divergent findings. Sample Size: Smaller sample sizes might not provide enough statistical power to detect significant correlations.

The relationship between HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del polymorphism in homozygosity and recurrent pregnancy loss is complex and subject to multiple influencing factors. While some studies suggest an association between specific alleles and RPL risk, others do not. The variability in results underlines the need for more extensive research with larger and more diverse populations to elucidate the role of this genetic variation in recurrent pregnancy loss. Understanding the influence of the HLA-3 UTR 14bp Ins/Del polymorphism on RPL may ultimately contribute to improved diagnostics and potential interventions for couples affected by this challenging condition.

Unraveling the Enigma of HLA-G: From Immunotolerance in Pregnancy to Recurrent Pregnancy Loss


Ultima modifica il Lunedì, 30 Ottobre 2023 14:03
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Scienzaonline con sottotitolo Sciencenew  - Periodico
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Pubblicato a Roma – Via A. De Viti de Marco, 50 – Direttore Responsabile Guido Donati

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