Palaeontologist Jessica Mitchell of the Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn with the thigh bone of the long-necked dinosaur Apatosaurus. © Photo: Volker Lannert/Uni Bonn
How old were the oldest dinosaurs? This question remains largely unanswered. The natural life span of these long-extinct giants is of interest to scientists, in combination with questions regarding how fast they could grow and how they could obtain sufficient nutrients from their habitat. Palaeontologists at the University of Bonn estimate by means of bone structures whether a particular dinosaur fossil is a young, adult or very old animal. The results have now been published in the journal Paleobiology.
The many different organisms from all participating partners were all mounted in such trays and then exposed to space on the outside of the ISS for one and a half years. © ESA/ROSCOSMOS | Picture in color and printing quality: www.fraunhofer.de/en/press
In a long-term experiment on the International Space Station, Fraunhofer researchers studied how the extreme conditions in space affect algae. Fraunhofer conducted this experiment in close cooperation with German and international partners. Research findings could benefit industrial applications and perhaps a mission to Mars.
L’esposizione alle previsioni dei modelli climatici ha meno effetto su policymaker e negoziatori che su un pubblico informato, secondo un articolo di Valentina Bosetti e co-autori. Ma il giusto formato di presentazione può migliorare l'efficacia delle previsioni.
Migratory birds like the garden warbler are hormone-controlled. (Photo: Wolfgang Goymann)
Migratory birds often stop along their long journeys to replenish their fat stores. The purpose of these stopovers – rest and refuelling – is clear. To date, however, it had been unclear which physiological signals triggered the birds’ decision to continue their flight. A team led by researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna has now identified, for the first time, the hormone ghrelin as a signal for the birds’ brains. Ghrelin, which is known to be an appetite-regulating hormone in humans, was measured at high levels in satiated garden warblers. Moreover, birds injected with additional ghrelin exhibited decreased appetite and increased the highly active state of migratory restlessness. The results, which were published in the journal PNAS, confirm the hormonal influence on avian migratory behaviour and could even lead to an improved understanding of eating disorders among humans.
A study has found that fiscal policies introduced by governments in developing countries can have a significant effect on lowering harmful carbon emissions and help counties with fulfilling their commitments under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement.
The research, due to publish in the journal Climate Policy, used Brazil as a case study and found that even early-stage ad hoc measures could be key to reducing emissions in the efforts to meet greenhouse gas mitigation targets.