Assessing the Potential of Insects as Food and Feed in assuring Food Security 23-25 January, FAO, Rome
Mark Smulders, Senior Economist Agricultural Development Economics Division FAO - Rome
What is food security?
•Food security as a development objective
•Food security and nutrition – underlying concepts
•Consultation themes and “assuring food security”
La première information consignée dans un document sur les insectes comestibles d’Afrique date de 1938 : Masseguin, A. (1938) Les chenilles comestibles dans la Haute-Sangha. Bull. Soc. Rech. Congolaises 25: 133 -145.
Les espèces les plus consommées:
Macrotermes falciger Gerstacker. Isoptère, Termitidae
Rhynchophorus phoenicis F. Coléoptère, Curculionidae
Oryctes spp. Coléoptère, Dynastidae
Cirina forda (Westwood). Lépidoptère, Saturniidae
Imbrasia epimethea Drury. Lépidoptère, Saturniidae
Imbrasia alopia Westwood. Lépidoptère, Saturniidae
Imbrasia obscura Butler. Lépidoptère, Saturniidae
Imbrasia oyemensis. Lépidoptère, Saturniidae
Antheua sp. Lépidoptère, Notodontidae
Anaphe panda, Lépidoptère, Notodontidae
Ruspolia sp. Orthoptère, Acrididae Tettigoniidae
Coryphosima stenoptera (Schaum, 1853), Orthoptère, Acridinae
Tristria sp. Orthoptère, Acrididae Tropidopolinae
Ornithacris turbida cavroisi (Finot, 1907). Orthoptère, Acrididae, Cyrtacanthacridinae
Kraussaria angulifera (Krauss, 1877). Orthoptère, Acrididae Cyrtacanthacridinae
Acanthacris ruficornis citrina (Audinet-Serville, 1838). Orthoptère, Acrididae Cyrtacanthacridinae
Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury.Orthoptère, Grillydae
Eumeta sp. Lépidoptère, Psychidae
Hieroglyphus africanus Uvarov, 1922. Orthoptère, Acrididae Hemiacridinae
Cybister sp. Coléoptère, Dytiscidae
Hydrophilus sp. Coléoptère, Hydrophilidae
Pachnoda marginata aurantia, Coléoptère, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae
Les Insectes Comestibles d'Afrique de L'Ouest et Centrale sur Internet http://gbif.africamuseum.be/lincaocnet/
In this fast-paced modern world, it is sometimes easy to lose sight of valuable traditional knowledge and practices. There is a tendency to think of traditional habits and customs as outdated or primitive. Yet, experience across numerous fields has highlighted the value and benefits to be gained from combining customary knowledge and approaches with modern science and understanding.
Such is the case with edible forest insects. The practice of eating insects goes back thousands of years and has been documented in nearly every part of the world. In modern times, however, consumption of insects has declined in many societies and is sometimes ridiculed as old-fashioned and unhealthy. Yet, it would be prudent to carefully consider the value of customary knowledge before discarding it too readily. Scientific analysis confirms, for example, the exceptional nutritional benefits of many forest insects, and studies point to the potential to produce insects for food with far fewer negative environmental impacts than for many mainstream foods consumed today.
Aside from their nutritional and environmental benefits, experts see considerable opportunity for edible insects to provide income and jobs for rural people who capture, rear, process, transport and market insects as food. These prospects can be enhanced through promotion and adoption of modern food technology standards to ensure that the insects are safe and attractive for human consumption.
Traditionally, most edible insects have been harvested from natural forests, but surprisingly little is known about the life cycles, population dynamics, commercial and management potential of most edible forest insects. Among forest managers, knowledge and appreciation of how to manage and harvest insects sustainably is limited. On the other hand, traditional forest dwellers and forest-dependent people often possess remarkable knowledge of the insects and their management, offering excellent opportunities for modern science and traditional knowledge to work together.
In an effort to more fully explore the various facets of edible forest insects, the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific organized an international workshop, entitled “Forest Insects as Food: Humans Bite Back” in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in February 2008. The workshop brought together many of the world’s foremost experts on entomophagy – the practice of eating insects. Specialists in the three-day workshop focused specifically on the science management, collection, harvest, processing, marketing and consumption of edible forest insects, as well as their potential to be reared commercially by local farmers.
Samples of four insects cooked according to traditional methods in central Angola, were analysed by approved chemical and microbiological techniques. The quality of the proteins was evaluated by several chemical indices. The larvae of Usta terpsichore had the greatest potential nutritional value but the other insects were also useful sources of nutrients.
This paper provides an overview of the nutritional aspects of insect consumption (entomophagy) among indigenous populations. The nutritional quality of food insects is discussed with special emphasis on the role of food insects as a source of animal protein. Available data on the amino acid composition of the most common food insects are summarized, and the potential of insect protein to complement protein of various staple foods is analyzed. Micronutrient composition of insects is briefly discussed.
7 January 2014
Using visualisation technology developed at Linköping University under the auspices of Visualization Center C, visitors to the British Museum can reveal the murder of the mummified Geberlein Man, 5,500 years ago. This world-leading technology has been described in a prestigious journal of computer science, Communications of the ACM.