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La resilienza dell’orzo: è l’unica pianta in grado di crescere in tutte le aree agricole del mondo
12 Luglio 2019

L’Università Statale di Milano assieme al CREA e al PTP...

BAMBINO GESU’: TUTTO SULLA SALUTE DEI DENTI, DALL’IGIENE ORALE ALL’APPARECCHIO
12 Luglio 2019

Convincere un bambino a lavarsi i denti può rivelarsi un’impresa...

Team di scienziati italiani getta nuova luce sul funzionamento del Prozac (che funziona ma ad oggi non si sa bene perché)
12 Luglio 2019

La ricerca pubblicata su “ACS Chemical Neuroscience” coordinata dall’Università di...

01 Luglio 2019

Trasformare le biomasse in combustibile diesel utilizzando vapore e luce...

Building up an appetite for a new kind of grub
01 Luglio 2019

Food preparation using cricket garnish and ground cricket Credit: Guiomar...

Scoperte le proprietà anti-ipertensive della rucola che, sorpresa, sono proprio legate al suo tipico sapore pungente
28 Giugno 2019

Lo studio condotto dai farmacologi dell’Università di Pisa è stato...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa: svelato uno dei meccanismi di resistenza agli antibiotici
22 Giugno 2019

L’infezione causata da questo batterio colpisce in ospedale i pazienti...

Piu' di 33mila bottigliette di plastica finiscono ogni minuto nel Mediterraneo
07 Giugno 2019

C’è un’incapacità diffusa dei Paesi del Mediterraneo di gestire i...

Scienzaonline

PHOTO LIBRO

What:    Launch a FAO Newsbook: Six-legged livestock: edible insect farming, collecting and marketing in Thailand. The event will be a lunch-time book launch and signing ceremony with two of the authors of a book that explores Thailand’s thriving edible insect sector. More than 20 000 insect farming enterprises are registered in the country; most are small-scale household operations. Insect farming and collecting has become is a significant economic activity in Thailand in the past two decades, driven by strong market demand and supported by university research and extension and innovative private-sector food processors and sellers. Overall, insect farming, collection, processing, transport and marketing has emerged as a multi-million dollar sector, providing income and employment for tens of thousands of Thai people, and healthy and nutritious food for millions of consumers.

Tuesday’s book launch and signing follows the release of the FAO report: Edible insects: Future prospects for food and feed security, which was issued at the International Conference on Forests for Food Security and Nutrition in Rome 13-15 May. That report looks at the global market for edible insects. The new publication to be released in Bangkok on 21 May complements the global report with a focused review of the sector in Thailand, which represents one of the most dynamic areas in the world for human consumption of insects.

Who:      Hiroyuki Konuma, FAO Assistant Director-General and Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific, who penned the forward to the book; Lead Author Yupa Hanboonsong, Associate Professor of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University; and  Author Patrick Durst, FAO Senior Forestry Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Snacks and Soft drinks will be offered at the book-signing.
One-on-one interviews with the authors will be possible.

When:  11:30 Tuesday, 21 May 2013.

Where:  Foreign Correspondents Club of Thailand (FCCT) Penthouse, Maneeya Bldg., 518/5 Phloen Chit Rd., beside Amarin Plaza, nearest BTS station is Chitlom Station. (Phone:+66 2 652 0580-1)

http://www.fao.org/asiapacific/rap/home/news/detail/en/?news_uid=176061

Pubblicato in Scienceonline


Graziano da Silva meets with South West Pacific ministers on food security


Efforts to end hunger and fight the effects of climate change in the Pacific Islands will hinge on the success of sustainable development, including wise use of oceans and fisheries, FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva told ministers from the region today.

“There can be no truly ‘green economy’ without a ‘blue economy’, one that makes the sustainable development of oceans and fishery resources a priority,” Graziano da Silva said.
“The importance of capture fisheries and aquaculture cannot be neglected. They provide over 3 billion people with about 15 percent of their average per capita intake of animal protein. And these two activities contribute over 200 million jobs globally,” 
“At the same time, these vital services must not jeopardize the key role oceans play in regulating the earth’s climate. They absorb more than 25 percent of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from human activities.”

Speaking at the 10th Meeting of FAO South West Pacific Ministers for Agriculture in the Samoan capital, Graziano da Silva also said addressing climate change had become “a question of survival – just like hunger.” 

The South West Pacific area accounts for roughly 15 percent of the globe, and includes about two thousand islands and atolls, which are particularly vulnerable to storms and flooding, water scarcity, and stresses on fishery and forestry systems.
The Director-General said one of FAO’s priorities was to work on the especially urgent climate change issues faced by Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and low-lying coastal areas in the Pacific and all regions.
FAO supports Pacific island countries in many ways, in part, by working to broaden and deepen implementation of internationally agreed norms, like the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and related instruments.
The organization works with governments and partners at the national, regional and international levels on issues like illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing; the management of tuna fishing; and the management of marine areas beyond national jurisdictions.

Nourishing ideas

Graziano da Silva pointed out that the world had gained ground in the fight against hunger, but there was still much work to be done to improve both food security and the quality of nutrition, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goal to halve by 2015 the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, as measured against 1990 benchmarks.

Graziano da Silva also noted that three-quarters of all adult deaths in the Pacific are linked to nutrition and lifestyle-related diseases. He highlighted the importance of addressing nutritional issues by implementing integrated nutrition strategies, diversifying diets and recovering the use of traditional, local crops produced by smallholders.

“Every region has a variety of non-commodity crops that were used in the past as food,” said the FAO Director-General, citing  pandanus plants as an example from the Pacific. “Research shows that pandanus contains high levels of carotenoids, which protected many generations from Vitamin A deficiency.”

Regional and global cooperation

The main task before participants of the meeting was to review and adopt an overall plan for FAO’s work in 14 countries in the region from 2013 to 2017.

“The support FAO offers you must respond to your development needs and priorities, as laid out in your sustainable development plans,” said the FAO Director-General, who also stressed the importance of aligning them with FAO’s revised strategic framework.

During his three-day visit, Graziano da Silva was bestowed with an honorary chiefly title during the Samoan Ava ceremony. He was scheduled to meet with Samoan Prime Minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi, ministers from other countries in the region, and local representatives of civil society and the private sector.

The Director-General was on his first visit to the Pacific islands since taking the helm of the hunger-fighting agency. Earlier in the week, he met with government authorities in Australia. After Samoa, he will travel to Vanuatu and New Zealand. 
http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/173975/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline


"Serious implications" feared for marine ecosystems and beyond

Shark populations in the Mediterranean and Black Sea have dropped dramatically over the last two centuries and now risk extinction, with serious implications for the region's entire marine ecosystem and food chains, according to a FAO Newsstudy.

"Sharks in the Mediterranean Sea have declined by more than 97 percent in number and ‘catch weight' over the last 200 years. They risk extinction if current fishing pressure continues," the study found.

In the Black Sea, although information is scarce, catches of the main shark species have also declined to about half of catches in the early 1990s.
"This loss of top predators could hold serious implications for the entire marine ecosystem, greatly affecting food webs throughout this region," it added.
The study, Elasmobranchs of the Mediterranean and Black Sea: Status, Ecology and Biology, was undertaken by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, one of several FAO regional bodies working in the fisheries sector.

Critically endangered

It found that cartilaginous fish species, such as sharks and rays, "are by far the most endangered group of marine fish in the Mediterranean and Black sea where 85 species are known to occur. Of 71 species assessed in the Mediterranean Sea in 2007, 30 (42 percent)  were found to be threatened, including 13 percent  critically endangered, 11 percent endangered and 13 percent vulnerable. Another 18 percent  were categorized as near-threatened.
Cartilaginous fish have skeletons made of cartilage, rather than bones. Within that group, sharks, rays and skates are scientifically termed Elasmobranchs. Their biological characteristics, including low fecundity, late maturity and slow growth make them more vulnerable than bony fish, as their regeneration rates are slower.

Issues such as "overfishing, wide use of non-selective fishing practices and habitat degradation" are therefore affecting these species more than others.

In general sharks and rays have not been deliberately targeted in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, but caught accidentally. Annual aggregated reported landings in the Mediterranean and Black Sea currently amount to some 7 000 tonnes, compared to 25 000 tonnes in 1985 - an indication of the severity of their decline.

At the same time, however fishing activities targeting sharks are intensifying due to rapidly increasing demand for shark fins, meat and cartilage.

Habitat disturbance

This is compounded by extensive damage to, or disturbance of, their habitats, caused by shipping, underwater construction and mining or by chemical, sound and electromagnetic contamination.
Among the most recent measures adopted by the Commission to protect sharks and rays is the prohibition of ‘finning' (removal of fins at sea and discarding of carcass) and the reduction of trawl fishing within 3 nautical miles off the coast to enhance protection of coastal sharks.
The Commission has also recommended Mediterranean and Black Sea countries to invest in scientific research programmes aimed at identifying potential nursery areas and to consider time and area closures to protect juveniles of sharks and rays from fishing activities.

Other initiatives undertaken by the Commission have included the organization of several meetings and  courses aimed at better understanding these species and their habitats and creating a background of Regional knowledge to guide GFCM Members in developing national plans to protect these key species.
http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/171847/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

Focus placed on responsibilities of flag states


After several years of negotiations, countries have taken a major step against illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU), one of the greatest threats to sustainable fisheries and related livelihoods.

International guidelines developed through an FAO-led consultative process aim to cut down on IUU fishing by improving the accountability of flag states - those countries which register fishing vessels and authorize them to fly their flags.

The Voluntary Guidelines for Flag State Performance were agreed upon after over five years of consensus-building among FAO Member Countries. The guidelines will be presented to the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) for endorsement at its next Session in June, 2014.


The guidelines include recommended approaches to encourage and help flag states comply with their international duties and obligations regarding the flagging and control of fishing vessels. They also present possible actions in response to non-compliance.
While no exact figures are known, it is widely accepted that IUU fishing has escalated in the past two decades and its magnitude is considerable.
The Technical Consultation was funded by the Governments of Canada, New Zealand, Norway and the United States of America, and by the European Commission.

A breakthrough

“The Voluntary Guidelines for Flag State Performance are a real breakthrough. They will be a valuable tool in efforts to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing,” said Árni Mathiesen, FAO Assistant Director-General for Fisheries and Aquaculture.

“Ultimately, these guidelines can help to ensure the long-term conservation and sustainable use of precious, living marine resources and ecosystems,” Mathiesen added.
“We all face the challenge of sustainability, and these guidelines give countries a new way to work together to meet this challenge.”
The proposed guidelines are wide-ranging and include, among other things, performance assessment criteria and procedures for carrying out assessments, and the cooperation between flag states and coastal states. They also look at ways to encourage compliance and deter non-compliance by flag states; ways to cooperate with and assist developing states in capacity development, and the role that FAO can play in supporting these processes.

FAO support

In addition to facilitating the development of the guidelines, FAO will monitor and report on implementation of the guidelines to COFI. It will also provide in-country technical assistance to countries requiring support. That support may include capacity-building measures like the development of an adequate legal and regulatory framework; strengthening of institutional organization and infrastructure needed to ensure adequate control of vessels; the development or improvement of monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) of fishing vessels, and training.

“Some flag States may need more support than others, especially developing countries. In certain cases, they may lack the institutional setup and technical know-how. They may be short on human and financial resources. Or, they may lack the drive to direct their efforts and to invest their available resources in the effective implementation of their duties under international laws relevant to fishing, in which case there is a greater need to build awareness of the long-term benefits of compliance,” said Matthew Camilleri, Fishery Liaison Officer within the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy and Economics Division.

The Guidelines draw on existing international law, like the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 and other international instruments such as the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the 2001 FAO International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing.

Committee on Fisheries


COFI is the only global inter-governmental forum where major international fisheries and aquaculture problems and issues are periodically examined and recommendations are addressed to governments, regional fishery bodies, NGOs, fish workers, FAO and the international community.
COFI has emphasized the fundamental importance of compliance by flag States with their duties under international law.

For more information on the Voluntary Guidelines for Flag State performance and other international instruments related to combating IUU fishing, see: http://www.fao.org/fishery/en

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/170570/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

Nobel laureate a "tireless advocate for a hunger-free world"



The death of Italian scientist and physician Rita Levi Montalcini, 103, has claimed a tireless advocate for a hunger-free world, FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva said today.

Montalcini, an FAO goodwill ambassador since 1999, died on 30 December in Rome.
"Professor Montalcini was recognized internationally as one of the world's finest minds. At FAO, we knew her as a wise and gracious friend, a tireless advocate for a hunger-free world," said Graziano da Silva.

"FAO will always be grateful to her for helping to keep the drive to end hunger, malnutrition and extreme poverty high on the international agenda," he added.
Montalcini, a physician and neurobiologist, won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1986 and was named Senator for Life by the Republic of Italy. As a goodwill ambassador, she wrote articles and editorials on the plight of the hungry, and regularly attended and spoke at high-level FAO events.

In recent years, Montalcini urged young people to become more involved in eliminating hunger, which she called a "tragic reality."

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/167739/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

Nobel laureate a "tireless advocate for a hunger-free world"



The death of Italian scientist and physician Rita Levi Montalcini, 103, has claimed a tireless advocate for a hunger-free world, FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva said today.

Montalcini, an FAO goodwill ambassador since 1999, died on 30 December in Rome.
"Professor Montalcini was recognized internationally as one of the world's finest minds. At FAO, we knew her as a wise and gracious friend, a tireless advocate for a hunger-free world," said Graziano da Silva.

"FAO will always be grateful to her for helping to keep the drive to end hunger, malnutrition and extreme poverty high on the international agenda," he added.
Montalcini, a physician and neurobiologist, won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1986 and was named Senator for Life by the Republic of Italy. As a goodwill ambassador, she wrote articles and editorials on the plight of the hungry, and regularly attended and spoke at high-level FAO events.

In recent years, Montalcini urged young people to become more involved in eliminating hunger, which she called a "tragic reality."

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/167739/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline


But there are hopeful signs that with extra effort the MDG target can be reached

Nearly 870 million people, or one in eight, were suffering from chronic undernourishment in 2010-2012, according to the new UN hunger report released today.

The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012 (SOFI), jointly published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP), presents better estimates of chronic undernourishment based on an improved methodology and data for the last two decades.

The vast majority of the hungry, 852 million, live in developing countries -- around 15 percent of their population -- while 16 million people are undernourished in developed countries.

The global number of hungry people declined by 132 million between 1990-92 and 2010-12, or from 18.6 percent to 12.5 percent of the world's population, and from 23.2 percent to 14.9 percent in developing countries - putting the MDG target within reach if adequate, appropriate actions are taken.

The number of hungry declined more sharply between 1990 and 2007 than previously believed. Since 2007-2008, however, global progress in reducing hunger has slowed and leveled off.

"In today's world of unprecedented technical and economic opportunities, we find it entirely unacceptable that more than 100 million children under five are underweight, and therefore unable to realize their full human and socio-economic potential, and that childhood malnutrition is a cause of death for more than 2.5 million children every year," say José Graziano da Silva, Kanayo F. Nwanze and Ertharin Cousin, respectively the Heads of FAO, IFAD and WFP, in a foreword to the report.

"We note with particular concern that the recovery of the world economy from the recent global financial crisis remains fragile. We nonetheless appeal to the international community to make extra efforts to assist the poorest in realizing their basic human right to adequate food. The world has the knowledge and the means to eliminate all forms of food insecurity and malnutrition," they add.

A "twin-track" approach is needed, based on support for broad-based economic growth (including in agriculture) and safety nets for the most vulnerable.

Impact of economic crisis
The new estimates suggest that the increase in hunger during 2007-2010 was less severe than previously thought. The 2008-2009 economic crisis did not cause  an immediate sharp economic slowdown in many developing countries as was feared could happen; the transmission of international food prices to domestic markets was less pronounced than was assumed at the time while many governments succeeded in cushioning the shocks and protecting the most vulnerable from the effects of the price spike.

The numbers of hunger released today are part of a revised series that go back to 1990. It uses updated information on population, food supply, food losses, dietary energy requirements and other factors. They also better estimate the distribution of food (as measured in terms of  dietary energy supply) within countries.

SOFI 2012 notes that the methodology does not capture the short-term effects of food price surges and other economic shocks. FAO is also working to develop a wider set of indicators to better capture dietary quality and other dimensions of food security.

MDG target within reach

The report suggests that if appropriate actions are taken to reverse the slowdown in 2007-08 and to feed the hungry, achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing by half the share of hungry people in the developing world by 2015 is still within reach.

"If the average annual hunger reduction of the past 20 years continues through to 2015, the percentage of undernourishment in the developing countries would reach 12.5 percent - still above the MDG target of 11.6 percent, but much closer to it than previously estimated," the report says.

Asia leads in number of hungry; hunger rises in Africa
Among the regions, undernourishment in the past two decades decreased nearly 30 percent in Asia and the Pacific, from 739 million to 563 million, largely due to socio-economic progress in many countries in the region. Despite population growth, the prevalence of undernourishment in the region decreased from 23.7 percent to 13.9 percent.

Latin America and the Caribbean also made progress,  falling from 65 million hungry in 1990-1992 to 49 million in 2010-2012, while the prevalence of undernourishment dipped from 14.6 percent to 8.3 percent. But the rate of progress has slowed recently.

Africa was the only region where the number of hungry grew over the period, from 175 million to 239 million, with nearly 20 million added in the past four years. The prevalence of hunger, although reduced over the entire period, has risen slightly over the past three years, from 22.6 percent to 22.9 percent - with nearly one in four hungry. And in sub-Saharan Africa, the modest progress achieved in recent years up to 2007 was reversed, with hunger rising 2 percent per year since then.

Developed regions also saw the number of hungry rise, from 13 million in 2004-2006 to 16 million in 2010-2012, reversing a steady decrease in previous years from 20 million in 1990-1992.
Agricultural growth to reduce hunger and malnutrition
The report underlines that overall growth is necessary but not sufficient for a sustained hunger reduction. Agricultural growth is particularly effective in reducing hunger and malnutrition in poor countries since most of the poor depend on agriculture and related activities for at least part of their livelihoods. Agricultural growth involving smallholders, especially women, will be most effective in reducing extreme poverty and hunger when it generates employment for the poor.

Growth must not only benefit the poor, but must also be "nutrition-sensitive" in order to reduce various forms of malnutrition. Reducing hunger is about more than just increasing the quantity of food it is also about increasing the quality of food in terms of diversity, nutrient content and safety.

For even while 870 million people remain hungry, the world is increasingly faced with a double burden of malnutrition, with chronic undernourishment and micronutrient malnutrition co-existing with obesity, overweight  and related non-communicable diseases (affecting more than 1.4 billion people worldwide).

To date, the linkage between economic growth and better nutrition has been weak, the report says, arguing for an integrated agriculture-nutrition-health framework.

Social protection systems

Growth is clearly important, but it is not always sufficient, or rapid enough. Hence, social protection systems are needed to ensure that the most vulnerable are not left behind and can also participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth.

Measures such as cash transfers, food vouchers or health insurance are needed for the most vulnerable who often cannot take immediate advantage of growth opportunities. Social protection can improve nutrition for young children - an investment that will pay off in the future with better educated, stronger and healthier adults. With effective social protection complementing inclusive economic growth, hunger and malnutrition can be eliminated. 

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/161819/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline


European Union takes the lead in three-year initiative


A major international initiative has been launched to better understand the role of aquaculture in food security in poor countries.
Bringing together a global alliance of development agencies, governments and universities, the initiative will help low-income food-deficit countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America to develop sustainable policies for improving the livelihoods of millions of poor people.
The European Union (EU) is funding the three-year project with one million Euros, which is managed by FAO in partnership with a global alliance of 20 development agencies, governments and universities.

Pivotal role

Fish is the primary source of protein for 17 percent of the world's population - nearly 25 percent in low-income food-deficit countries. Fish is also a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit the heart and brain development of healthy people, and those at high risk of - or who have - cardiovascular disease. Nearly 50 percent of the fish that we eat now comes from aquaculture.

Although aquaculture is widely regarded to play a pivotal role in fighting hunger, little is known about its exact impact on food and nutrition security and poverty alleviation in developing countries.

Given population growth projections, increasing demands for fish products with stable production of capture fisheries, aquaculture will need to expand to meet the future demand for fish.

Impact on food security

The new partnership represents the world's regions where aquaculture plays a major role and supports the livelihoods of millions of small-scale fish farmers. It also includes key institutions with a strong expertise in research, development project implementation and dissemination.
The project ("Aquaculture for Food Security, Poverty Alleviation and Nutrition - AFSPAN") will develop new ways to quantify the contribution of aquaculture with better tools and more systematic and quantitative assessments. Moreover, it will elaborate strategies for improving the impact of aquaculture on food and nutrition security and poverty alleviation.

"The project will work closely with fish farming communities and will focus on field research in many major aquaculture countries in the developing world. It will develop tools and methodologies to help key partners to develop policies geared to improving aquaculture's contribution to food and nutrition security," said Rohana Subasinghe, senior FAO expert on aquaculture and coordinator of the project.

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/159323/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline
Lunedì, 18 Novembre 2013 14:48

Lifting the veil of mystery surrounding bats


FAO “bat manual” aims to reduce disease risk, highlight benefits



Few animals have suffered more from negative publicity than the bat. Nature's only winged mammal is frequently depicted in folklore and films as destructive, unhealthy and unattractive. Increasing concern about the bat's potential for spreading disease to other animals and humans has contributed to the suspicion that often surrounds the animal.


A manual published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization aims to help countries minimize the risks to public health, while protecting the vital role that bats play in agriculture and the environment.
The guide, "Investigating the Role of Bats in Emerging Zoonoses: Balancing Ecology, Conservation and Public Health Interest," is a hands-on reference to bat history, biology, monitoring, handling, and disease screening. The text is especially relevant as diseases transmitted by bats appear to be on the rise for various reasons.
Agricultural expansion and the use of natural resources are encroaching on bat-occupied territories, leading to increases in the interaction between bats, livestock and people. Understanding the changes that affect these populations is critical to addressing the risks, and limiting the exchange, of viruses between species.

The publication is designed for use by epidemiologists, wildlife officials, farmers, livestock veterinarians, zoologists, and any number of different professionals who might come into contact with bats. It was written by veterinarians, wildlife biologists, virologists, and disease experts, and includes field techniques for studying bats and infectious agents that do not cause disease in bats, but which can cause other animals or humans to become sick.

Natural allies in farm production
"Bats really are natural allies to the environment. They pollinate plants, spread seeds, and some species can devour about 25 percent of their body weight in insects. These benefits far outweigh their potential for transmitting disease. Yet, we cannot ignore the fact that development, demographics, and consumption of natural resources are bringing people, livestock and bats into closer and more frequent contact with one another. This increases the risk that bats can transmit potential pathogens and associated diseases to other animals and people," said Scott Newman, FAO wildlife veterinary epidemiologist, and co-author of the guide.

In the Philippines, the pollination provided by bats is crucial to maintaining ecosystems like the Subic Bay Forest Watershed Reserve. Government ministries responsible for Health, Agriculture and Wildlife have worked together to protect bat habitats while monitoring them to protect pigs and humans from disease spread.

Disease transmission

The bat manual is part of a broader effort by FAO and its partners to build awareness of the importance of wildlife to agriculture, ecosystems, and animal and human health.
In Malaysia and Bangladesh, fruit bats have been known to transmit Nipah virus, a previously unknown, contagious and deadly disease which was first recorded in pigs and humans in the 1990's. Disease studies showed that bats directly infected pigs in Malaysia, while in Bangladesh, humans picked up the virus primarily by ingesting date-palm sap that had been contaminated by bat excretions.
In Latin America, vampire bat-variant rabies causes a significant number of human deaths each year. In Southeast Asia and Africa, bats are being evaluated for the role they play in Ebola outbreaks.

Fruit bats from the order Pteropodidae are the animal reservoirs for Ebola, which can cause a deadly hemorrhagic disease in humans and other mammals.  Outbreaks of Ebola in human populations are relatively rare, but mortality rates can reach up to 90 percent.

"It's important to realize that, while bats may pose a risk to human health, in most cases, disease exposure from bats is usually a result of human activity. This means that we can study bats and learn healthier ways to share our farms, forests and communities with them," Newman added.

"The new guide supports countries in their efforts to improve management of bats' natural habitats while ensuring the health of humans, livestock and other wildlife species."

Balancing act
FAO's new manual looks at these concerns within a One Health approach. One Health is a framework that addresses zoonotic diseases by using a multi-disciplinary perspective to understand and monitor the connections between different species and their agro-ecological habitats, with the aim of protecting the health of all.

"FAO has started using the bat manual for capacity development in keeping with the One Health concept, specifically in the Field Epidemiology Training Programme for Veterinarians (FEPTV). We plan to distribute this manual to our member countries in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas," says Newman.

The new manual will also be used in regional disease-monitoring projects being implemented by FAO and partners in Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The projects will study how the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans can affect the spread of Henipah, Lyssa and Corona viruses - all pathogens capable of causing illness and death in domesticated animals and humans.

Investigating the Role of Bats in Emerging Zoonoses: Balancing Ecology, Conservation and Public Health Interest" was produced, in part, with financial support from the government of Australia, APHCA, and technical and in-kind support from various partners.

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/154452/icode/

Pubblicato in Scienceonline

ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti has been assigned to be launched on a Soyuz spacecraft from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in 2014 for a long-duration mission aboard the International Space Station.

ESA’s Director of Human Spaceflight and Operations, Thomas Reiter, and the International Space Station partners board have released the official assignment for the European–Italian flight.

Italy’s space agency, ASI, proposed Samantha for this mission of 6–7 months.

“It is a great satisfaction to see the third astronaut of the 2009 recruited class assigned to a mission to space,” said Director Reiter.

Samantha completed basic training in 2010. She is now training on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, Station systems, robotics and spacewalks. Samantha, a captain in the Italian Air Force, has logged more than 500 hours of flying time on six types of military aircraft.

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/ESA_astronaut_Samantha_Cristoforetti_set_for_Space_Station_in_2014

_____________________

Pubblicato in Scienceonline
Pagina 1 di 3

Medicina

BAMBINO GESU’: TUTTO SULLA SALUTE DEI DENTI, DALL’IGIENE ORALE ALL’APPARECCHIO

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Scienzaonline con sottotitolo Sciencenew  - Periodico
Autorizzazioni del Tribunale di Roma – diffusioni:
telematica quotidiana 229/2006 del 08/06/2006
mensile per mezzo stampa 293/2003 del 07/07/2003
Scienceonline, Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Roma 228/2006 del 29/05/06
Pubblicato a Roma – Via A. De Viti de Marco, 50 – Direttore Responsabile Guido Donati

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