Internal movement in the Achilles tendon is related to the tendon anatomy. The structure of the rat Achilles tendon in the image. Abbreviations: SOL = soleus muscle, LG = lateral gastrocnemius and MG = medial gastrocnemius.
The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the human body. It can bear loads exceeding over 900 kilograms during running. Despite its strength, it is prone to injuries and it is not yet well known what factors predict good or bad recovery from injuries. Studies with the measurement of Achilles tendon forces have proved that loading may not be distributed evenly throughout the entire cross-sectional area of the tendon. This is possible because the Achilles serves as a common tendon for three calf muscles, which all have different properties and functions. The soleus muscle extends and flexes only the ankle joint but the gastrocnemius muscle (medial and lateral heads) also flexes the knee. Due to this, different parts of the Achilles tendon may move in relation to each other. The investigation of movements within the Achilles tendon helps to understand its normal and abnormal function and give insight on research related to tendon injuries.
European researchers have discovered that genetic factors play a role in some cases of tinnitus, particularly in men who have the condition in both ears. “This result is surprising and unexpected as it shows that, unlike the conventional view of tinnitus being driven by environmental factors, there is a genetic influence for bilateral tinnitus which is more pronounced in men,” says Dr Christopher R Cederroth at Karolinska Institutet's Department of Physiology and Pharmacology. Tinnitus is a brain condition that affects around 10 per cent of the population. It causes constant ringing or buzzing in the ears and for some it can be debilitating, leading to insomnia, anxiety, depression and even severe psychiatric problems. There is no cure for tinnitus and the many sub types of the condition make it difficult to treat.
A recent study showed approximately one-fifth of patients with cancer experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) several months after diagnosis, and many of these patients continued to live with PTSD years later. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings highlight the need for early identification, careful monitoring, and treatment of PTSD in cancer survivors. Although PTSD is primarily known to develop in individuals following a traumatic event such as a serious accident or natural disaster, it can also occur in patients diagnosed with cancer. Because PTSD in cancer has not been explored thoroughly, Caryn Mei Hsien Chan, PhD, of the National University of Malaysia, and her colleagues studied 469 adults with various cancer types within one month of diagnosis at a single oncology referral center. Patients underwent additional testing after six months and again after four years..
La sperimentazione contro il melanoma di un prodotto derivato da componenti naturali presenti in microalghe e in piante terrestri ha dato risultati positivi. Messo a punto da un team di ricerca del quale fa parte anche l’Icb-Cnr, agisce stimolando il sistema immunitario a controllare la proliferazione delle cellule tumorali e degli agenti patogeni. Lo studio è pubblicato su Scientific Report
L’Istituto di chimica biomolecolare del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Icb-Cnr), in collaborazione con il dipartimento di Clinica interna e sperimentale dell’Università della Campania e il Centro di eccellenza per le ricerche biomediche dell’Università di Genova, ha identificato un nuovo componente vegetale per la preparazione di vaccini e dimostrato la sua efficacia contro un modello sperimentale di melanoma. Il composto, denominato Sulfavant, deriva da prodotti naturali presenti in microalghe marine e in piante terrestri e agisce stimolando le cellule dendritiche, prima linea di difesa del sistema immunitario e responsabili del riconoscimento di agenti pericolosi per l’organismo. Lo studio è stato pubblicato su Scientific Reports, rivista del gruppo Nature. Il nuovo composto è stato brevettato e l’Istituto del Cnr ne sta progettando lo sviluppo attraverso un accordo con la società spin-off BioSEArch, nata dalla collaborazione con la Stazione Zoologica ‘A. Dohrn’.
The food allergy, which is related to birch pollen, is a very common attendant phenomenon associated with birch pollen allergy – indeed around 70% of those with a birch pollen allergy are also allergic to apples. That amounts to around 280,000 people in Austria. In those affected, eating apples leads to swelling and rashes or itching in the mouth and gullet, as well as in the ear area, and even to blistering. Working in close collaboration with Tamar Kinaciyan at MedUni Vienna's Department of Dermatology, a research group led by Barbara Bohle at the Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research has now proven in a Phase II trial that the apple allergen "Mal d 1" significantly reduces the symptoms of apple allergy and is therefore an effective and safe treatment option. Of the 60 volunteers with birch pollen-related apple allergy, 20 were treated with placebo, 20 with a birch pollen allergen and with the recombinant apple allergen Mal d 1, that is to say genetically manufactured, reproducible, very stable and therefore easily stored.
The overuse of veterinary antibiotics in animal production and the subsequent land applications of manure contribute to increased antibiotic resistance in soil. A new review published in the European Journal of Soil Science examines the results of recent studies on veterinary antibiotic use, the concentrations of antibiotics, and the abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in animal manure and in soil that receives manure or manure composts. The review also discusses the need for more stringent regulations on the use of veterinary antibiotics and future research directions on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and resistance management.
“Recycling of animal manures to soil is good for soil quality, but the spread of antibiotic resistance needs to be tackled urgently,” said co-author Dr. Fang-Jie Zhao, of Nanjing Agricultural University, in China.